The Importance of Tempo in Golf

The golf swing has many actions that all have to happen in the right sequence and need their own time to develop. The way for all that to occur is to swing with the right tempo.

Tempo is the measure of the overall speed of your swing, the elapsed time it takes to go from takeaway to impact.

Unless your tempo is the same from swing to swing, and is the right tempo for you, your technique, no matter how well you have learned it, will not be repeated consistently if your tempo is inconsistent from swing to swing or even during the swing. Parts of your swing will be rushed, some will be delayed, others might be skipped over entirely, all because you’re swinging at the wrong speed.

The tempo that suits you best is the one at which you hit the ball off the center of the clubface most frequently. This might be slower than you’re swinging now.

This tempo is not limited to your swing. Hit every shot with the same tempo, from drive to chip to putt. Using the same tempo for every shot builds in a constant that links up all your shots and has the effect that each shot reinforces the success of the others.

If you find your swing breaking down in the middle of a round, or any other shot not performing well, especially your putting, check your tempo. I would guess get it has gotten too fast. Slow it down to where it suits you, don’t speed it up going into the ball, and you should be fine again.

Golfers: Manage Your Mind, Manage Your Expectations

I played a round a few weeks ago on a day that was going to be pretty hot, so my playing partner and I teed off at 7:00 a.m. We had the course to ourselves. The range hadn’t opened by the time we started, so a few practice swings to get ready, and away we went. We played fairly well for the first three holes; we were both relaxed and loose.

On the fourth hole, a 174-yard par 3, I put my tee shot just off the back of the green, twenty-five feet from the pin. Beautiful shot. I chipped to 18”. Tour-quality chip. I missed the putt. Nice par, down the drain. My partner was more disappointed than I was. Since I wasn’t too upset about it, he asked me how I handle missing a short putt like that. I said that I might or might not miss the next one that short, but stressing over this one guarantees that I will miss it. The best way to make sure it doesn’t happen again is to chalk it up as a bad shot, forget about it, and play on.

This kind of thinking can be applied anywhere. The same golfer who can hit a pin-seeking missile from 160 yards on one hole can yank it 20 yards left on the next. We expect to hit our best shots all the time, but we don’t. Touring professionals don’t. No amount of practice will let any golfer do that. Realize that you’re as good as your best shots and worst shots put together, and they all even out. I’ve never had a score, good or bad, that I didn’t deserve. If you can make peace with that fact, golf becomes much more enjoyable. And you’ll score better, too.

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The Finish Position of the Golf Swing

One spring morning I showed up at the course for a 9:30 a.m. tee time to find the first tee full of players. There had been a frost delay, so about eight foursomes ahead of us had yet to tee off. I hung around the first tee to watch everyone swing. This is what I saw. A clear majority of the players ended their swing with their weight firmly on their right foot, if not falling backward in that direction. You can imagine what their shots looked like.

How a golfer finishes the swing is a clear indicator of what went on before. It takes only a half second to get from impact to finish, in which time the golfer decelerates the clubhead from about 80-90 miles per hour to a full stop. The state of the swing at impact will thus directly influence the state of the finish position. When a good finish position is your goal, you will find yourself modifying your swing so you can get there, and the changes you make will be for the better.

Finish your swing standing comfortably upright, facing the target squarely, with your weight on your left foot, and your right foot balanced on the toe tip. You should be able to lift your right foot off the ground without disturbing your balance. Both hands will be to the left of your head and the club will be behind your head on a line that connects your ears. Your right shoulder should end up near your chin, but this depends in part on your flexibility.

Practice your finish by making shortened swings with your driver, no ball. Take the club halfway back and swing smoothly through to a full finish. When you get to the finish position, hold it there for a few seconds to let your mind absorb the process of your swing leading you into that position.*

The next time you watch a tournament on TV, watch where the players end up and how they get there. Or, if you have a chance to see a professional tournament in person, go to the range and watch the players warm up. In every case, the finishes you will see are graceful and balanced. That’s your model. There are things the pros do that we can’t, but this is not one of them. Build a good finish into your swing and watch the rest of your swing improve.

*Your finish position can subject your back to considerable twisting. I would recommend that hold your finish position infrequently as a check, and never routinely when practicing or playing. Always release yourself to a neutral upright position with your hands in front of you as you watch the ball, just like Phil does.


How To Sink Short Putts

Short putts are the ones from four feet and under. They’re the ones you just have to sink and are so afraid of not sinking. So you miss. Is that you? That was me. Here’s how I solved the problem.

The hole is a negative space. We’re trying to hit the ball at something that isn’t there. How can you hit something that isn’t there? That doesn’t make sense to me. What does make sense is to hit the ball at something that is there. That gives our mind something positive to aim at, something much easier to hit.

Whenever I practice short putts, I put a water bottle in the hole, and practice hitting the bottle. It’s so simple it should be a crime. Really. You can’t miss. Instead of trying to ease a ball into a tiny opening in the ground, you’re aiming at the broad side of a barn and actually hitting it. There’s a real target to aim at, and that takes off all the pressure. Try it.

Best of all, you will never see the ball roll past an empty hole. Never. That implants a wonderful affirmation: “I never miss the hole.” Now your conscious mind might say, “That’s because you never hit at one!” but we don’t listen to that mind. We’re training the subconscious mind, which knows only black and white. If it never sees the ball miss the hole, it comes to believe, “I never miss.”

After you’ve practiced this way for long enough, the image of an object sticking out of the hole sticks with you. When you’re playing, even though you’re looking at an empty hole, you see the bottle sticking up out of it. In your mind, the task becomes, hit the bottle. If you do, since there’s really no bottle there, the ball goes in the hole. Simple.

If the short ones give you fits, if you’d rather putt from six feet than two, try putting at a bottle on the practice green for a few sessions. Warm up this way before you play, too. It will change everything.

Your Golfer’s Back

Everyone who plays golf is an athlete. Golfers make movements specific to the game which have little to do with how they move in daily life. Part of learning to play golf is learning how to make those movements to play effectively. The other part is learning to how to make those movements to avoid injury.

Golf injuries of the lower back have been extensively studied. The lower back is stressed most in making a swift and violent turn into the ball on the downswing. Current swing theory directs that the difference between the hip turn and shoulder turn on the backswing. The greater the difference, the more the lower back is loaded with unnatural pressure. The inconsistent swing which is characteristic of recreational golfers can cause a sudden, unexpected, and excessive load to be applied to the lower back. A lack of physical fitness leaves the body unable to resist these stresses which leaves the body open to injury.

My lower back is in terrible shape, yet I have played pain-free golf for years. This is how I do it. Please consider these ideas for yourself, regardless of the state of your back.

The foundation of my full swing is tempo. Tempo is the speed at which the hips turn. It must be the same swinging back and swinging down. When the tempo of the hip turn stays constant, not only do you hit the ball better, but you prevent sudden stresses from being applied.

I take my stance by bending from my hips, not from my waist. Bending from your waist throws weight onto the lower back.

On the backswing, I turn my hips so the maximum difference between my hip turn and shoulder turn is about 20 degrees. (Professional golfers have a difference of 45 degrees or more.)

My swing itself is led by a full body turn and powered by holding on to my wrist set until the momentum of the downswing naturally releases the clubhead into the ball. I see so many recreational players lurch into the ball as a way of hitting hard, that I wonder just when the shoe is going to drop, if it hasn’t already.

Your finish position can subject your back to considerable twisting. I would recommend that hold your finish position infrequently as a check, and never routinely when practicing or playing. Always release yourself to a neutral upright position with your hands in front of you as you watch the ball, just like Phil does.

In addition, you can do these things to protect your back.

Warm up carefully. Stretch and turn lightly and gently before you even pick up a club. Begin to swing by taking a driver and making long, slow, and I mean slow, swings, to gradually warm up your turning muscles.

Start going through your bucket by hitting a few pitches with a half swing. Work your way through the bag from your short clubs up to your driver.

During the round, stretch out every four holes or so. You make a full swing only every few minutes and you can stiffen up before the round is over.

Walk around the course with your clubs on a pull cart. Carrying your clubs compresses the spine. Riding in a cart can subject your spine to impact stresses when the cart goes over bumps.

Golf is our recreation, not our livelihood. Play it so it introduces joy into your life instead of pain.



Many players write down not only their score on their scorecard, but notes on the quality and quantity of different shots. They might take note of whether their drive finished in the fairway or not. Whether they hit the green in the regulation number of strokes (GIR). How many putts, and so on, and adding on whatever level of detail they can make use of.

Here is a system to try. It’s easy to mark down, easy to read and interpret. For each hole, write down three numbers: the number of full swings (FS), short shots (SS), and putts (P). Make a note of penalty shots and recovery shots, but don’t put them in any of your counts.

The number of full swings on a hole should equal par minus two, though on par 5s, your third might be a pitch. Every time you miss a green there will be a short shot. For example, 202 is a green hit in regulation, but 211 means you missed the green and made par with an up and down.

There should be only one short shot per hole. Short shots plus putts should add up to two per hole. No fours! 211, good. 212 OK, 222 bad.

Three-putt greens (213) generally mean your approach putting is weak. One-putt greens are usually the back end of a short shot and show your short putting is strong (211 or even better, 201).

For the round, if full swings add up to 40 or less, or if short shots plus putts add up to the same, that’s pretty good. If either of these totals are 45 or more, get to work! Ideally, the short shot total would be zero, but less than nine is pretty fine. 32 putts is a good goal. 38 or more is telling.

By looking at the totals (FS, SS, SS+P, P) over time, trends might emerge. The number of full swings going down indicates improvement in their overall quality. Further improvement would be indicated by a lower number of short shots. A decrease in the number of putts could mean improved putting or improved short shots. Practice everything, but spend most of your time at the range on the number that isn’t going down.

After you get home, you can write down every shot and record the particulars according to this system. Keep it simple while you’re playing.

My new book, The Golfing Self, is now available at It will change everything about the way you play.

What’s In My Bag

In every golfing magazine these days you can read about what clubs are in a touring pro’s bag. Here’s what’s in my recreational set.

Driver – Titleist 975D, 11.5°, regular flex shaft. Bought used for $89. Would a fitted driver do me better? Probably, but I hit this one pretty darn good and the difference in price between it and a new one costing $399 equals a lot of extra green fees.

Hybrid irons – Hogan Edge CFT, 2(19°), 3(21°), and 4(24°), and 5(27°). The 2 gives me the same distance off a tee as the fairway wood I used to carry, and I hit it much better off the fairway. The 4 is my bread and butter club. When I take it out of the bag I know something good is going to happen. Replace your long irons with hybrids. I don’t care how well you hit your long irons, hybrids are so easy to hit it’s almost cheating. I can still hit a 5-iron, but the 5-hybrid is so much easier, why not?

Irons – Hogan Apex Red Line, 6-E(PW). Blades, beautiful and responsive. The pitching wedge is labeled E. Hogan called his pitching wedge his equalizer, because, he said, if you can pitch, there is no pin they can hide from you. The shafts are plus one inch because of my height (6’6”), and the heads were bent a few degrees upright.

Wedges – Titlist Vokey Spin Milled 52°/10°, 60°/8°, and Hogan 56°/8° Sure-Out. The numbers on the Titleist wedges are the loft and bounce. These lofts give me a consistent six-degree difference throughout my wedge set. Their shafts are plus one inch. The Sure-Out has a huge hunk of metal underneath the clubface. If I have to hit out of tall grass, this clubhead will not be denied. Loft unknown; doesn’t matter, really.

Putter – Ping G2 Tess. It’s fitted with a 38” shaft, is more upright than normal, and is toe balanced. It has a simple design because I don’t want to look at something that came off a spaceship when I putt.

Ball – Bridgestone e5. Distance? My swing takes care of that. Throw this ball at the pin from 30 yards, though, and it hits the green and slams on the brakes.

My new book, The Golfing Self, is now available at It will change everything about the way you play.

The Fifteen-Foot Putt

Data from, published in the July 2009 issue of Golf Digest magazine, stated that the distance from which the average high 80s shooter is as likely to one-putt as to three-putt is fifteen feet. What can we make of this factoid?
Let’s look at how professionals perform from that distance. Data compiled for forty golfers playing in a 72-hole invitational tournament, and presented in the book The Search For The Perfect Swing, show that of 152 putts played from a range of twelve-eighteen feet, 35 went in the cup, and only 2 led to a three-putt green. That’s a long way from a break-even ratio. How do we explain it?
Looking further, the data for these 152 putts also show that 122 of them, which count includes the ones that went in, finished no more than eighteen inches from the hole. There we have it.
No one is good enough to make a fifteen-foot putt for the asking time after time, but someone can be good enough to give luck a chance much more often than not. Eight out of ten of the subject putts were hit well enough that one-quarter of them found their way in. Anyone who putts that well won’t leave the others far behind.
It would be silly to expect to hit a 6-iron like professional golfers do, but there’s no reason why a recreational golfer can’t learn to hit a fifteen-foot putt like they do. No reason at all.
Here’s how. Drop four balls on the practice green and putt each one with about a two-foot backswing.
Important! Do not watch the ball roll out. Keep your head down and do not look up until all the balls have been hit.
If your stroke was consistent, you will have four balls very near each other, about fifteen feet away. If they went too far, do it all over with a shorter stroke. Once you get the right stroke and memorize it, you now have a stroke that guarantees you’ll leave a fifteen-foot putt next to the hole.
You might try developing a standard stroke for twenty-five-foot putts, too.
Oh, yes. The break-even distance for professionals in the Perfect Swing study was about thirty-three feet.
My new book, The Golfing Self, is now available at It will change everything about the way you play.

What Shots Should You Practice Most?

Update 2017: Your day-in, day-out scoring shots are the tee shot, the greenside chip, and the approach putt. If your swing puts the tee shot in the fairway, it will put the iron from the fairway on or near the green. Good chipping and approach putting let you close the hole in two shots, not three.

Compare two kinds of rounds – your best ones and the ones where you only flirt with your best. Even though the difference in your score might be five strokes, the difference in the way you play is like you’re different golfers.

I break 80 once or twice every year. Without fail, my irons are straight all day and my approach putting is superb. I can’t look back on any round when I hit both those shots like that in the same round and didn’t break 80.

So what do you think I practice most? Irons and approach putting! My key to lower scores, I believe, are the shots I hit well when I go low.

Of course I practice short putts, as well as chipping and pitching. Short putts and chips keep me in contention on days my irons and approach putting are having a day off. Pitching? Getting your pitch close is how a recreational golfer makes birdies on par 5s.

But the bulk of my practice is spent on the shots that turn me into a recreational scoring machine. It doesn’t make sense to do it any other way.

Slight detour to The Driver – the Evil Seducer. The more you practice with your driver, the more chances you have of ruining your swing. Just put an 8-iron swing on your driver and you’ll be fine.

Take a close look at your “career” rounds, and figure out what shots got you there. It isn’t because you played better overall. Probably one or two shot types are much better than normal, and it’s the same shot types every time.

Spend the most time practicing those shots, while not sacrificing the others completely.

My new book, The Golfing Self, is now available at It will change everything about the way you play.

Golf Course Maps

When I was growing up I checked out a copy of The Complete Golfer out of the library. The book, edited by Herbert Warren Wind, is a fabulous collection of articles on history, instruction, biography, humor, fiction . . . and golf courses. This book is what started me on a life-long love affair with golf courses.

The last section of the book has color fold-out maps of The Old Course at St. Andrews, The National Golf Links on Long Island, Pine Valley, Pebble Beach, Merion, Pinehurst No. 2, Augusta, and Oakland Hills. Each course is described in an essay by Robert Trent Jones. The essays didn’t do much for me, I was only 12 at the time. But oh, those maps!

They showed the fairways, bunkers, the greens, where the next tee was, how you walked your way around the course. How I would walk around the course when I had the chance – little did I know. But on a vacation in 1962 I did make it as far as the eighth hole at Pebble Beach that same year, and played the Old Course six years later.

Pine Valley has all that sand. I watched Byron Nelson and Gene Littler play a match there on TV at about that time. Scary.

Augusta. I don’t think there is a course that so many people are so familiar with. By now we know what every hole looks like, and the back nine is burned in our brain. But how many people could lay little models of each hole in the right place on a blank piece of paper? Could you do it?

The National Golf Links I didn’t get, and still don’t, Pinehurst is all about the greens, and Oakland Hills is only in there because Jones remodeled it for the 1951 National Open (as it was called in 1951).

That leaves Merion. It’s eighteen holes of golf packed into a space that would hold twelve if it were built today. Ardmore Avenue goes right through the middle of it, putting holes 2-12 on one side and the rest on the other. How do players cross the road? Is there a crossing guard? There are long holes and short holes, short because there’s no room to put in a long hole, and even then some of the short holes had to be bent to make them fit.

It’s such a tidy course, the one I would pick it if I were allowed to play on any one I wanted. So if you’re reading this post and you belong to Merion, give me a call. Same goes if you’re a member at Cypress Point. Give me a call. And I was just kidding about Pine Valley . . .

My new book, The Golfing Self, is now available at It will change everything about the way you play.

Little Differences That Make a Big Difference in How Well You Play